Seaways: March 2016

26 Апр

В настоящем номере журнала “Seaways”, который издается Морским институтом Великобритании, содержатся аналитические, а также новостные материалы. Наше внимание привлекли, в частности, следующие:

  • Navigational assistance in VTS — service or procedure? – статья, в которой рассматриваются вопросы, связанные с организацией и функционированием служб движения судов (СДС). При этом особое внимание уделяется анализу резолюции ИМО А.857 (20) от 27.11.1997 “Руководство для служб движения судов”. Автор: Commodore Barry Goldman CBE, FNI Royal Navy (Rtd).
  • Emergency signals – публикация, в которой детально анализируются нормы международных конвенций, в особенности, СОЛАС (SOLAS), а также Международного кодекса по спасательному оборудованию на судах (International Life-Saving Appliance Code) и Международнjого кодекса по управлению безопасностью  (International Safety Management Code). Эта публикация особенно интересна практическими рекомендациями экипажам судов. Автор: Captain Mark Bull, FNI Marine Consultant.
  • The Seaman Guard Ohio decision – статья, содержащая анализ казуса The Seaman Guard Ohio и положений ЮНКЛОС (UNCLOS), а также роли и значения  Международного трибунала по морскому праву в свете безопасности морской деятельности. Автор выступает за  расширение мандата Международного трибунала по морскому праву. Автор: Captain Miro Alibasic, MNI.
  • Autonomous ships – дискуссия по проблеме автоматических судов. Начало дискурсу было положено в январском номере Seaways, и Prof Capt Edgar Gold, AM, CM, QC, PhD, FNI, Brisbane, Australia, выступил с изложением своей точки зрения, суммируя вопросы, связанные с этой проблемой. В ответ Philip Wake OBE FNI, Chief Executive, The Nautical Institute представил свое вИдение тенденций в сфере автоматизации судов, причем основной идеей, вероятно, является то, что автоматизация судов – это одна из прогрессивных технологий, которая в различных формах и в разумных масштабах будет внедряться в мореплавание, но не вытеснит полностью традиционные суда. Принимая во внимание актуальность темы, ниже приводим упомянутый диспут полностью на языке оригинала.

I am delighted that The Nautical Institute is involving itself in this interesting subject and I enjoyed reading the three very diverse letters on the subject in the January issue of Seaways.

In his letter, Capt Malcolm Armstrong provides a strong opposing view and poses the question ‘Why?’ I imagine that this question has been raised since time immemorial about every major change in the maritime field. This question was certainly raised over a thousand years ago when someone suggested that more efficient sails might replace oars in the galleys; eventually such a question was raised when ships changed from sail to steam; from side-wheel to propeller; from coal to oil, to nuclear, to LNG; from tanker to super-tanker, to VLCC, to ULCC; from cargo carrier to container vessel, to super container vessel; as well as with innovations such as Plimsoll Lines, lifeboats, life-rafts, RDF, Radar, GPS, unmanned engine rooms – and so on.

Someone has always questioned changes but such changes have always prevailed.This will also happen with autonomous ships. As we know, as-yet experimental autonomous cars are already in operation on the roads, and aviation has been using autonomous’drones’for some time. Some of these can now carry significant military payloads about which we know very little.

Some of my aircraft pilot friends tell me that most of the new generation passenger aircraft could operate autonomously with very little additional technology. However, so far the industry feels that passengers still like having someone up front, but that this will likely change in the not-too-distant future.

It seems that this new innovation presents an ideal opportunity for our profession to become involved at an early stage. A good debate is, of course, required, but dismissing any innovation out of hand will simply provide others, who may be far less qualified, with the opportunity of taking it over. We need to start positively by accepting that autonomous ships are coming and that, for many reasons, they are probably a good idea. We can then start looking at problems that may occur so that the system will work at maximum safety and efficiency levels.

Автор: Prof Capt Edgar Gold, AM, CM, QC, PhD, FNI, Brisbane, Australia

Источник: Seaways. – 2016. – March. – P. 33.

Feedback on Seaways is always valuable and appreciated, although I am sorry that my short piece on autonomous ships in January’s Focus has caused some concern. I hope that these remarks will reassure members that we are not supporting any moves to end the gainful employment of our members or other seafarers. As regards autonomous shipping, there is an element of misunderstanding as to why we are driving a debate on this, which we will try to address individually and collectively.

The Nautical Institute is monitoring developments in autonomous operations in shipping with interest as the relationship between systems and humans needs to be addressed well to maintain and improve safety.

Over the past few decades, autonomy has been brought into most ship systems, to the point where navigation systems, cargo monitoring and even unmanned engine rooms are standard on most new ships. The Nl continues to explore these relationships as part of our Human Element work. Examples can be found in the 40 issues of the Alert! Human Element bulletin; our Human Performance and Limitations book; and our engagement in the development of eNavigation, where the Nl continues to be a leading stakeholder, identifying user needs, promoting standardisation for interfaces and designing for usability.

The Institute has also been at the vanguard of ensuring the highest standards of operation for the autonomous systems used in dynamic positioning (DP), where it has been recognised that the use of such systems needs specialist training and experience beyond that identified by the IMO for non-DP ships.

Currently, we are aware of thousands of fully autonomous surface craft in use on a daily basis. These are primarily used for military, exploratory and ocean monitoring activities. The Nl is therefore engaged in safety debates as these craft increase in number and size.

The rules of engagement between autonomous craft and manned craft need to be established, as do the qualifications of the humans who control and program them. Those in control of seagoing craft need to be professional and have access to professional development. This new breed of maritime professionals is recognised by Nl HQ and our Council.

It is likely that the vast majority of manned commercial craft will not be replaced for many decades, if ever. However, new technology cannot be used effectively without experienced mariners and other maritime professionals being involved in their development. Greater use of autonomy in shipping is inevitable, rather than fleets of unmanned ships, and a professional approach to the cohabitation of traditional skills and new technology should be a goal of a professional body.

Автор: Philip Wake OBE FNI, Chief Executive, The Nautical Institute

Источник: Seaways. – 2016. – March. – P. 33.